Congenital anomalies after assisted reproductive technology
The adjusted risk of congenital anomalies in assisted reproductive technology versus spontaneously conceived children is only slightly increased, and it seems that malformation rates are declining over time.
Anja Pinborg, M.D., D.M.Sci., Anna-Karina Aaris Henningsen, M.D., Sara Sofie Malchau, M.D., Anne Loft, M.D.
Volume 99, Issue 2, Pages 327-332, February 2013
Worldwide more than 5 million children have been born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) and in many developed countries ART infants represent more than 1 % of the birth cohorts. It is well-known that ART children are at increased risk of congenital malformations even after adjustment for known confounders such as maternal age. The proportion of ART children is not negligible and knowledge on the causes of the higher risk of congenital malformations is crucial to develop prevention strategies to reduce the future risk in ART children. The aim of this review is to make a summary of the literature on the association between ART and congenital anomalies with respect to subfertility, fertility treatment other than ART, different ART methods including ICSI, blastocyst culture and cryo-techniques. Trends over time in ART and congenital anomalies will also be discussed.