Genetic mechanisms leading to primary amenorrhea in balanced X autosome translocations
The etiology of primary amenorrhea in balanced X-autosome translocation patients may underlie more complex mechanisms than interruption of specific X-linked candidate genes, such as position effect.
Mariana Moysés-Oliveira, M.Sc., Roberta dos Santos Guilherme, M.Sc., Anelisa Gollo Dantas, B.S., Renata Ueta, B.S., Ana Beatriz Perez, Ph.D., Mauro Haidar, Ph.D., Rosane Canonaco, M.D., Vera Ayres Meloni, M.D., Nadezda Kosyakova, Ph.D., Thomas Liehr, Ph.D., Gianna Maria Carvalheira, Ph.D., Maria Isabel Melaragno, Ph.D.
Volume 103, Issue 5, Pages 1289-1296
To map the X-chromosome and autosome breakpoints in women with balanced X-autosome translocations and primary amenorrhea, searching candidate genomic loci for female infertility.
Retrospective and case–control study.
University-based research laboratory.
Three women with balanced X-autosome translocation and primary amenorrhea.
Conventional cytogenetic methods, genomic array, array painting, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
Karyotype, copy number variation, breakpoint mapping, and gene expression levels.
All patients presented with breakpoints in the Xq13q21 region. In two patients, the X-chromosome breakpoint disrupted coding sequences (KIAA2022 and ZDHHC15 genes). Although both gene disruptions caused absence of transcription in peripheral blood, there is no evidence that supports the involvement of these genes with ovarian function. The ZDHHC15 gene belongs to a conserved syntenic region that encompasses the FGF16 gene, which plays a role in female germ line development. The break in the FGF16 syntenic block may have disrupted the interaction between the FGF16 promoter and its cis-regulatory element. In the third patient, although both breakpoints are intergenic, a gene that plays a role in the DAX1 pathway (FHL2 gene) flanks distally the autosome breakpoint. The FHL2 gene may be subject to position effect due to the attachment of an autosome segment in Xq21 region.
The etiology of primary amenorrhea in balanced X-autosome translocation patients may underlie more complex mechanisms than interruption of specific X-linked candidate genes, such as position effect. The fine mapping of the rearrangement breakpoints may be a tool for identifying genetic pathogenic mechanisms for primary amenorrhea.