Interaction of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms on miscarriage risk in black and white American women

Capsule:
We investigated a biracial cohort of women at the end of their reproductive life. Carrying the apolipoprotein E*2 allele was a risk factor for pregnancy loss only in white women.

Authors:
Silvia Gamundi-Segura, M.Sc., Elena Torres-Perez, M.Sc., Alejandro Sanz-Paris, M.D., Jose M. Arbones-Mainar, Ph.D.

Volume 105, Issue 6, Pages 1554-1560

Abstract:

Objective:
To evaluate whether [1] apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms can differentially regulate miscarriage risk and [2] whether this genotype effect could also be modulated by the race within populations.

Design:
Data were derived from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA), a longitudinal study with black and white participants from four U.S. locations.

Setting:
Not applicable.

Patient(s):
Women without miscarriages (controls) and women who miscarried at least once (cases).

Intervention(s):
None.

Main Outcome Measure(s):
A group of women (n = 1,372) successfully followed for 25 years and with their APOE alleles identified were analyzed for miscarriage risk throughout their reproductive life. Additionally, a larger longitudinal analysis encompassing all the participants who had their APOE characterized (n = 2,140) was also performed for the association between APOE and miscarriage risk.

Result(s):
In white women followed up for 25 years, the odds ratio for miscarriage associated with APOE*2 allele presence was 1.61 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–2.50) compared with APOE*33 carriers. This was a race-dependent phenomenon as no associations between APOE alleles and miscarriage was observed in black women. Likewise, Cox regression analysis showed that cumulative miscarriage risk in white women was 37.2% in the APOE*2 carriers compared with 27.8% and 24.8% in APOE*33 and APOE*4 carriers, respectively. With APOE*33 as the reference, the age-adjusted hazard ratio associated with carrying the APOE*2 allele was 1.47 (95 confidence interval, 1.06–2.05).

Conclusion(s):
This variable miscarriage risk, produced by an interaction between genotype and race, may reconcile, at least partially, the conflicting reports of the association of APOE and miscarriage risk.

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