Addition of nitrous oxide to the carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum strongly decreases adhesion formation and the dose dependent adhesiogenic effect of blood in a laparoscopic mouse model

Capsule:
The addition of nitrous oxide to the carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum strongly prevents adhesion formation in a laparoscopic mouse model, with a maximal effect from 5%–10% upward. Blood dose-dependently increases adhesion formation.

Authors:
Roberta Corona, M.D., Ph.D., Maria Mercedes Binda, Ph.D., Karina Mailova, M.D., Ph.D., Jasper Verguts, M.D., Ph.D., Philippe R. Koninckx, M.D., Ph.D.

Volume 100, Issue 6, Pages 1777-1783, December 2013

Abstract:

Objective:
To evaluate the effect of addition of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum (PP) and the effect of blood, plasma, or red blood cells (RBCs) on postoperative adhesions in a laparoscopic mouse model.

Design:
Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Setting:
University laboratory research center.

Animal(s):
BALB/c female mice.

Intervention(s):
The effect of adding to the 60-minute CO2 PP 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, or 100% N2O on adhesion formation was evaluated. Subsequently the effect of adding 1 mL blood, or RBCs, or plasma and the effect of adding different concentrations of blood were studied. Finally, the effect of adding 10% N2O, 4% O2, or both to the CO2 was evaluated in a control group and after addition of blood.

Main Outcome Measure(s):
Postoperative adhesions after 7 days.

Result(s):
N2O strongly reduces adhesion formation with a full effect at a concentration of 5% or 10%. Adhesions increase linearly with 0.125 mL to 1 mL blood. In both the control group and after adding blood, 10% N2O is the most effective factor in prevention of adhesions.

Conclusion(s):
N2O, from concentrations of 5% upward, strongly prevents adhesion formation. Blood, mainly the plasma, increases adhesion formation. These data extend the concept of the role of acute inflammation and support the importance of good surgical practice with little bleeding and peritoneal cavity conditioning in adhesion prevention.

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