Role of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor mutations in patients with a wide spectrum of pubertal delay

Capsule:
GnRH receptor analysis showed deleterious mutations in 10% of normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism patients, with a good genotype-phenotype correlation. No significant alterations were identified in constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

Authors:
Daiane Beneduzzi, M.Sc., Ericka B. Trarbach, Ph.D., Le Min, M.D., Ph.D., Alexander A. Jorge, M.D., Ph.D., Heraldo M. Garmes, M.D., Ph.D., Alessandra Renk, M.D., Marta Fichna, M.D., Piotr Fichna, M.D., Karina A. Arantes, Elaine M. Costa, M.D., Ph.D., Rona S. Carrol, Ph.D., Anna Zhang, Oluwaseun Adeola, M.D., Junping Wen, M.D., Ph.D., Berenice B. Mendonca, M.D., Ph.D., Ursula B. Kaiser, M.D., Ana C. Latronico, M.D., Ph.D., Leticia F. Silveira, M.D., Ph.D.

Volume 102, Issue 3, Pages 838-846

Abstract:

Objective:
To analyze the GNRHR in patients with normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP).

Design:
Molecular analysis and in vitro experiments correlated with phenotype.

Setting:
Academic medical center.

Patient(s):
A total of 110 individuals with normosmic IHH (74 male patients) and 50 with CDGP.

Intervention(s):
GNRHR coding region was amplified and sequenced.

Main Outcome Measure(s):
Novel variants were submitted to in vitro analysis. Frequency of mutations and genotype-phenotype correlation were analyzed. Microsatellite markers flanking GNRHR were examined in patients carrying the same mutation to investigate a possible founder effect.

Result(s):
Eleven IHH patients (10%) carried biallelic GNRHR mutations. In vitro analysis of novel variants (p.Y283H and p.V134G) demonstrated complete inactivation. The founder effect study revealed that Brazilian patients carrying the p.R139H mutation shared the same haplotype. Phenotypic spectrum in patients with GNRHR mutations varied from complete GnRH deficiency to partial and reversible IHH, with a relatively good genotype-phenotype correlation. One boy with CDGP was heterozygous for the p.Q106R variant, which was not considered to be pathogenic.

Conclusion(s):
GNRHR mutations are a frequent cause of congenital normosmic IHH and should be the first candidate gene for genetic screening in this condition, especially in autosomal recessive familial cases. The founder effect study suggested that the p.R139H mutation arises from a common ancestor in the Brazilian population. Finally, mutations in GNRHR do not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of CDGP.

  • msamplaski

    As we elucidate the etiologies of men with IHH and CDGP, it will be interesting to see if there are differences in response rates to various forms of medical therapy, both with respect to serum hormones and sperm production.

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