Effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection An analysis of 27158 singleton infants born after fresh single embryo transfer

Capsule:
Lower sperm motility was associated with significant lower sex ratio in in vitro fertilization whereas intracytoplasmic sperm injection was associated with significant lower sex ratio regardless of sperm quality.

Authors:
Mikiko Arikawa, M.D., Seung Chik Jwa, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., Akira Kuwahara, M.D., Ph.D., Minoru Irahara, M.D., Ph.D., Hidekazu Saito, M.D., Ph.D.

Volume 105, Issue 4, Pages 897-904

Abstract:

Objective:
To evaluate the effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Design:
Retrospective cohort study.

Setting:
Not applicable.

Patient(s):
A total of 27,158 singleton infants born between 2007 and 2012 after fresh single-embryo transfer.

Intervention(s):
None.

Main Outcome Measure(s):
Proportion of male infants among liveborn infants.

Result(s):
There were 14,996 infants born after IVF, 12,164 infants born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, and 646 infants born after ICSI with nonejaculated sperm. The sex ratio of IVF was 53.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3–53.9); the sex ratio of ICSI with ejaculated and nonejaculated sperm demonstrated as statistically significant reduction (48.2%; 95% CI, 47.3–49.1 and 47.7%; 95% CI, 43.8–51.6, respectively). In IVF, lower sperm motility, including asthenozoospermia (sperm motility <40%), was associated with a statistically significantly lower sex ratio compared with normal sperm (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.6–53.3 vs. 53.4%; 95% CI, 52.5–54.3). In ICSI with ejaculated sperm, there was no association between sperm motility and sex ratio. Sperm concentration was not associated with sex ratio in both IVF and ICSI. Conclusion(s):
In IVF, lower sperm motility was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio; ICSI with either ejaculated or nonejaculated sperm was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio regardless of semen quality.

  • Another article looking at secondary sex ratio and infertility. while most previous data showed no difference or great number of female offsprings in male infertility cases, current report demonstrated increased ratio toward male. many evolutionary theory exist to explain sex ratio. with declining semen parameter in the general population, it would be interesting to see how secondary sex ratio evolves over time.

  • msamplaski

    This is interesting data. I would be interested in knowing if any of the other semen parameters correlated, such as morphology. Also were any of these sperm frozen? What do the authors propose is the cause for this abnormality? Is it due to differential sperm “weight” from the extra genetic material of the X chromosome?

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